Without disassembling the diagnosis, it is possible to judge the tractor's technical condition or malfunction without disassembly. This method can avoid the waste of manpower, material resources, and time (especially blind disassembly) due to disassembly, and can also avoid the damage of machine parts caused by disassembly. The diagnostic method will not be dismantled as follows. 1. Temperature, smoke change tractors in the work, some faults will often cause changes in temperature, smoke or smell, so you can use these changes in the work as an inspection means to prove that some failure. (1) Temperature change If a cylinder does not work, the temperature of the cylinder head and cylinder part of the cylinder will certainly be low; if a certain spindle bearing is burnt out, the temperature of the spindle near the body must be high, the body heats up and the oil evaporates. There is a blue-gray or white smoke inside the crankcase that overflows from the air vent; if the brakes slip, the brake hub must be warm, and there is odor and smoke emitted. (2) If the smoke changes if the exhaust pipe emits dark smoke, the load is too heavy, the oil supply is too large, and the quality of the fuel injection is poor; if it is blue smoke, it is burning oil; if it is gray, it is the body. The temperature is too low or there is water in the oil. (3) When odors such as friction plates, brake belts, transmission belts, insulating lacquer, and engine oil are damaged, the corresponding odor must be spilled out. This can be clearly felt by smelling, and provides some basis for analyzing the location of the failure. . 2. The inquiry method asks the driver and the repairman about the signs and conditions before and after the tractor malfunctions, or consults records of the recorded and maintained records of the vehicle and repair files, etc., as a reference for judging and analyzing the failure. 3. The observation method judges the malfunction of the machine by observing the abnormal phenomena of the machine, such as the appearance of water leakage, oil leakage, air leakage, and leakage of the oil on the surface of the machine. The oil temperature, oil pressure, water temperature are abnormal, and the light is not bright. 4. The cylinder-cut method stops the fuel supply or ignition of a certain cylinder in turn, and observes the change of the fault sign to judge which cylinder has failed. 5. In the process of analyzing failures, the heuristic method can not accurately determine the cause of certain failures for a time, and adopts some tentative inspections and adjustment methods to observe changes in failure signs to verify whether the doubts are true or not. For example, it is suspected that the air leakage between the cylinder liner and the piston is serious, which makes it difficult to start the engine. Pour some oil into the cylinder to enhance its tightness. If the engine is started again, the cylinder liner and the piston do not leak. Another example is the lack of power in the engine work, start difficulties, discharge black smoke, doubt injector fuel injection pressure is too low, by adjusting the fuel injection pressure, if the failure to reduce or eliminate, then prove that the injection pressure is indeed low. If the brakes are not working properly, it is suspected that the brake gap is too large, and the gap can be reduced. If the brakes change, the fault caused by the gap is too large. 6. When the change method analyzes a fault, it has suspicions for a certain part or part, and can be replaced by a spare part with good technical condition. According to the change of signs before and after the change of parts, it is determined whether the technical status of the original part is normal. For example, the hydraulic suspension mechanism cannot be lifted, and it is suspected that the fault is loaded on the distributor and the dispenser with good technical condition. If it cannot be lifted, the fault is not in the distributor. For multi-cylinder engines, two-cylinder injectors or spark plugs are often used interchangeably to see if the fault is followed by a shift to identify where the fault is. 7. The index assessment method is used to analyze and judge the degree of wear of machine parts through the changes of relevant indicators. For example, according to the ratio of internal combustion engine oil consumption to main fuel consumption, the degree of wear of the cylinder sleeve piston group is deduced; according to the engine main oil passage hydraulic pressure drop value, the degree of wear of the crankshaft bearing is calculated. 8. The screening method does not directly inspect some failure factors that are inconvenient for inspection or inspection when it is inconvenient, or even has no inspection method. Instead, it is used to check and screen out other failure factors in order, and the last remaining is the true cause of the failure. 9. The auscultation tractor or engine has abnormal noise during work, but I don't know where it is. You can use a stethoscope or a screwdriver to auscultate it. Repeatedly comparing the noise of each cylinder or the sound changes of different parts, and then according to the internal parts and the coordination relationship, Judging from which parts of the sound caused by the part, so as to determine the basis for the cause of the fault. If the sound is in the cylinder head part, it may be the sound of the rocker hitting the head and the valve stem, or the valve and valve seat, the top rod colliding with the rocker arm. If the sound is between the cylinder head and the cylinder, it may be a collision between the valve and the piston and between the valve and the valve seat. If the sound comes from the lower part of the cylinder, it may be a collision sound between the piston and the piston pin or between the piston pin and the copper sleeve at the small end of the connecting rod. Again, if the sound is near the crankcase, it may be a collision between the connecting rod and the connecting rod journal, or between the crankshaft and the main bearing shell. 10. The test method uses the instrument and gauge to test the relevant technical specifications to analyze the fault and technical status. Such as using the instrument to measure the engine's power, speed, pressure, temperature, flow and so on. 11. When the engine is running, the "Cut Vein" method holds the high-pressure tubing in place and uses the pulsation generated when the felt pump pressures the oil to determine the working condition of each cylinder, ie "cutting the pulse." When this method is adopted, the auscultation method and temperature sensing method can be simultaneously analyzed and compared to determine the cylinder where the fault is located and the cause. The general situation is: large pulsation, strong bursting sound and high instantaneous temperature, indicating that the single-cylinder oil supply is large; the pulsation is small, the outburst sound is weak and the instantaneous temperature is low, indicating that the single-cylinder oil supply is small; the pulsation is large, but the burst sound Weak and transient temperatures are low, indicating that the injector nozzle is blocked or the needle valve is stuck. As a result, the oil pressure in the high pressure tubing is high, but it cannot be injected or the fuel injection is small; the pulsation is small, the explosion sound is abnormal and the instantaneous temperature is high It indicates that the fuel injection pressure of the injector is reduced and the atomization is not good, resulting in the inability to fire and complete combustion in time. As a result, the post-combustion is severe and the exhaust gas temperature increases. 12. When the comparison method determines that a cylinder is not working properly, to further determine the location of the fault, remove a high-pressure tubing connector for the faulty and non-faulty cylinder on the fuel injection pump, then step on the accelerator and press down to start. Press the button to compare the height of the oil column ejected by the diesel in the two oil pipe joints of the fuel injection pump. If there is a fault in the height of the oil cylinder of the fault one cylinder and the non-fault one cylinder, it means that the fault is caused by the poor seal of the injector or by the cylinder; otherwise, the fault is in the fuel injection pump.
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