First, the election
1. Soil quality: Choose sandy land with loose soil and good air permeability. The best of black land with a sediment content of about 30-40%. Increasing the number of cultivating cultivars and increasing the permeability of the soil in clay soils is best performed in autumn. Melon vines grow to more than 30cm, do not plough deeply to prevent injury.
2. Topography: The terrain is flat, with a slight slope, sunny back wind, convenient drainage and irrigation, no guilt (not urine), close to water sources, easy-to-manage land, and convenient transportation.
3, gargle: The best wasteland or wasteland, glutinous rice, wheat bran, corn bran, sorghum, millet, rice bran can be. At least 6-7 years, no watermelons, melons, vegetables, no weight, no pods. Rice seedlings and melons must be deeply turned in the autumn of the previous year to ripen the soil.
The fertilization of watermelon is based on the base fertilizer, and the balance of fertility (nutrient) is beneficial to the improvement of disease resistance and stress resistance. Therefore, 5,000 kg of high quality farmyard fertilizer should be applied per mu, (preferably sheep manure, chicken manure and pig manure, horse manure and cow dung can also be used), superphosphate (over stone) 50 kg, three-element compound fertilizer 30 kg (or 20 kg of diammonium phosphate and 15 kg of potassium sulfate).
Fertilization method: first in the original trench to be planted with a large plough or deep pine spade deep loose again, deep 20-30 cm, and then fill the water, after the water seepage, the base fertilizer evenly filtered to the trench In the application (2 empty 2), after the end of fertilizer filtration and then break the original fertilizer to cover the base fertilizer, cover the end of the fertilizer, and then filter the fat again on the new lotus root, and then combine to form a layered base fertilizer, a good combination of After pressing it with tweezers again, it was covered with a 70 cm wide plastic film after pressing, and the film was pressed tightly to prepare for transplanting.
Three, spacing, row spacing
1, row spacing: Each åž…65-70 cm, species 2 hollow 2 åž…, 2.1 meters row spacing.
2, spacing between plants: spacing from 80-100 cm. 350-500 plants per acre.
IV. Transplanting seedlings
1, the preparation of nursery tray
Use a Seedling tray or no soil sprouts, 60cm40cm5cm or 60408cm water permeable seeding trays and other utensils. The tray is filled with sand (Shanasha) that is as large as the rice grains of Rhubarb and washed with clean water to form pure sand (do not have soil. ), Insert 3-4 cm thick in the germination tray and prepare for sowing.
At room temperature, put the seeds in pots, add cold water to the pots and soak seeds for 8 hours. Then remove the water and viscous substances on the surface of the seeds with a coarse cloth or towel. To ensure germination, it is best to put the seeds. Open the slit. Insert the seed into the empty space in front of the blade's rear axle and hear it click. Then put the smashed seeds on a wet towel that is slightly wrung (but not short of water) and place it evenly, 0.5-1.0 cm thick, and then cover it with a slightly wrung wet towel and put it on 25 Germinate at a constant temperature of -30Â°C for 24-36 hours.
3, sowing and nursery
Put the seed evenly (1.0cm1.0cm) on a sand table prepared in advance, and cover it with a layer of 1.0cm thick pure sand (neutral sand), and immediately apply water. Placed indoors or in a warm shed, no more than 30Â°C during the day, no less than 18Â°C â€‹â€‹during the night, and about 3-4 days of emergence. Because sand has good water permeability and is prone to lack of water, it can be used to pour water once on the third day after sowing, or it can be covered with a thin layer of film on the seedling tray, and then removed immediately after emergence to preserve water and heat. 3-4 days after the water once, after 5-7 days after the emergence of a foliar liquid fertilizer. When watering, diammonium phosphate fertilizer is put in water and the nutrient water is poured every 5-7 days after the concentration reaches 0.3% (ie, 10 pounds of water, 0.3 kilograms of fertilizer). If the temperature is too high, the water is too large, and the excess fertilizer is easy to grow, so pay attention to controlling the length. Appropriate water control, temperature control, ventilation, seedling age 15-20 days. Plant the seedlings 5-7 days before planting (temperature 15-17Â°C). (You can breed more when you raise your seedlings, exceed 20% of the actual seedling volume, and prepare seedlings.)
The above method is called seedling leaf seedlings also called big bud seedlings. Save time, money, low cost, easy to manage, 2 to 2 acres of land is enough. The open-cultivated large-fruited watermelons stably passed 15Â°C at ambient temperature, and when the soil temperature was stable at 10Â°C, germination was better, but the moisture conditions for emergence and seedling growth were ensured. Seed pits are left when sowing, to prevent cotyledons from touching the mulch when they are sprouting. Immediately after sowing, the mulch film was covered, and when the seedlings emerged, seedlings and temperature conditions were promptly protected against winds to prevent roasting of seedlings.
4. Planting (transplanting) When planting (after planting on the mulching film), dig a pit with a small soil shovel at a spacing of 80-100 cm (with digging together with the mulching film) to a depth of 6-7 cm for planting. When transplanting, the seedlings were divided and graded according to their size, and they were planted separately, 2 plants were planted in each pit, and they were planted for 3-4 days. Transplanting is best when there is no wind in the sunny morning planting is easy to survive. When transplanting, the roots of cotyledon seedlings are required to be stretched, upright or laterally erect (skewing), and the roots must not be curled so as not to affect the growth of roots and seedlings. It is advisable not to expose white roots when soil is cultivated. After the soil is cultivated, the soil should be compacted by hand, and the roots should be in close contact with the soil. Immediately after the soil is soaked, the water is allowed to infiltrate and then covered with a 1 cm thick fine soil seal pit. To prevent the hard cover. Then cover the mulch and compact the mulch with soil and compact it to prevent it from being dried by the wind. After the colonization, let the cotyledons and hypocotyls be 1.0-1.5 cm above the ground. At the same time, use soil to press the seedlings between each seedling to prevent the wind from moving the membranes. When transplanting, the plant spacing is staggered and the pruning is used as a foundation. .
V. Field Management
1. Pruning: Three vine pruning, leaving a strong vine spread from the roots and two robust side vines from the roots. The pruning is best from about 11 am to 4 pm, preferably not in rainy days, to avoid injury and wound infection and injury. If you don't grow straight, you must press it with your hands.
2, pressure vines: generally three pressure. The main vines press the first road at 30-40 centimeters; they press one at a time every 40 centimeters (the side vines are the same as the main vines). When vines are pressed, they can be used with soils or clods that are more important, and the weight of soil can be up to 2 pounds. Spray a fungicide on the leaves for 1-2 days before pruning to prevent infection of the wound during pruning. Dark pressure: It is to dig a 5-10cm depth and 10-20cm length ditch on the ground below the melons. The melon vines are buried with soil and the leaves are exposed outside. Generally, the year of drought is more suitable depending on the weather conditions. The guarana can also be darkly pressed. Rainy and wet weather and the year should not be used under pressure.
3. Artificial pollination: When a female flower is open, in the event of a foggy or rainy day, a rain-proof paper hat should be worn on the afternoon of the first day of female flower opening to the ground, and the male flower to be opened to the ground on the second day at 5 o'clock in the morning. Pick it up and put it in a room with suitable temperature. When the female flowers at 6-9 o'clock are open, go to the ground and put the petals of the male flowers on their backs to expose the pollen. Gently apply it on the stigma of the female flowers. After pollination, wear a rainproof paper hat for the female flowers. (The central purpose is not to let the female flowers. The stigma and pollen are raining.) In order to improve the seat rate.
4, stay melon: leave one melon per plant, generally choose the main vine to stay melon, the main vines of the first 3-4 female flowers, side vines choose the third female flower to stay melon. When the young squash settled, select the melon in time. In order to prevent leggy squabs, a melon approach can be adopted. That is, the second melon is 3-4 days long (fixed) and the first melon is removed, and so on, until the ideal and standard melon type. When the young melon grows to the size of the goose egg, it is selected to stay in the melon. Choose guati long thick, young skin color light green, without scars, melon-shaped Zhou Zheng. As the selected melon, the rest are removed.
The above is within the normal range, and the special environment should be flexibly adjusted to stay in the melon way.
When planting watermelons in the spring in the north, regardless of the type of pruning, the main female flower must be removed in time.
5, top dressing and watering
1) Stretch the vines and stretch the vines: When the melon seedlings grow to 5-6 true leaves, according to the soil moisture and seedling conditions, the water can be poured once to recover the vine.
If the water supply is sufficient, it can be flooded in the sulcus in the middle of the two quails. Before the irrigation, topdressing fertilizer was used to recover 10 kg of urea and 10 kg of potassium sulfate per mu. Chasing 20 centimeters away from the root, 15 centimeters deep, gargoyle.
2) Swelling melon fertilizer and swelled melon water: When the female flower of the melon section is pollinated 7-12 days after the pollination (when the young melon grows to the size of the goose egg), the melon must be swelled and swelled with water. Urea 10 kg per mu, potassium sulfate 10 kg. Rainy days chasing grain fertilizers, dry days catching water fertilizers (add urea and potassium sulfate to water, after dissolution, 20 centimeters away from the melon root side, tie eyes, 15 centimeters deep, no less than 4 pounds of water per plant), if the soil More wet or less watered or not watered, according to the actual situation to be flexible.
6. Pest control:
1) Prevention and control of seedling blight and damping-off disease When watering, they can be added to water by adding 70% thiophanate-methyl, 70% Formosame, and 70 Dudexson wettable powders to mix and mix 500-800 times. Liquid poured into the pit. (500 pounds of water plus the sum of the above three drugs 1 kg).
2) Control of Fusarium Wilt: In the field, the central diseased plant (only 1-2 strains were found) was killed. The bacteria was used to kill the star 1500 times and the withered spirit was 500 times. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added to irrigate the roots. Each vessel was filled with 150-200 ml. (3-4 two) liquid medicine. At the same time, the roots of the plants that did not get sick around the surrounding area were also fed. Before irrigating the soil, the soil of the melon root should be opened by hand. See the white root, and then irrigate the roots. Irrigate the roots and dry them one day. Irrigate once every 5-7 days. Normally, it can be controlled 3-4 times.
3) Prevention and control of anthrax: After anthrax is found in the field, kill 3000 times with anthrax and 500 times with anthrax, and add 30 kg of water (0.5 pounds of water) per 30 pounds of water and foliar spray. It is best not to rain for 6-8 hours after spraying. If it rains within 6 hours after spraying, it should be sprayed immediately. Usually spray 5-7 days, 3-4 times to control. Or 50% thiophanate-methyl 25g + 50% Rhizoctonia 25g + kill 20g, mixed into 300 times spray, spray 5-7 days, 2-3 times to control.
4) Locust control: When ants are found in field watermelon pods, they should be inspected for locusts. When there are small amounts of locusts, they should immediately spray 40% omethoate 800 times, 800 times more times, and 800-1000 times more. Prevention and control, spray once every 5-7 days, the whole growth period must be controlled. In recent years, Liriomyza sativae has also been found to be controlled in time.
7. The harvest blooms on the 12th and matures for 38 days. Therefore, it is necessary to leave a mark when pollinating, so as not to know when the melon will mature. If it is a long-distance transport, it is harvested when the watermelon is ripe (30-34 days). If it is listed nearby, it will be harvested when it is very mature.
Shrub Seedling,Crown Vetch,Lespedeza Bicolor,Striped Crotalaria Herb
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