The greenhouse cucumber in the greenhouse has a large position in the northern vegetable production. It can provide fresh vegetables to northern residents in advance and become the main product of the summer vegetables before they are listed. However, due to the influence of various factors, the cucumber is often affected by the infection of diseases such as bacterial leaf spot, downy mildew, and blight, which seriously affects the yield and quality of cucumber. Through the observation and study of these diseases, the causes of the frequent occurrence of cucumber diseases in the greenhouses in the north greenhouse were summarized, and corresponding countermeasures for prevention and control were proposed.
One, cucumber bacterial angular spot
Cucumber bacterial angular spot mainly damages the leaves, petioles, tendrils and melons, and sometimes invades the stems. From the seedling stage to the adult stage, it can be affected. It is an important disease in the production of cucumbers in northern greenhouses. Generally, it can reduce production by 10 to 20%, and severely up to 30%. Control measures:
1, do a good job in seed processing. Seeds were soaked in warm water at 50Â°C for 20 minutes before sowing and then germinated after sowing. Can also be used 40% formalin 150 times liquid immersed for 1.5 hours, or 1 million units of 500 times streptomycin sulfate soaked for 2 hours, washed and germinated after sowing.
2, strengthen the cultivation and management. First of all, it is necessary to raise seedlings with disease-free soil and implement non-melon crop rotations for more than 2 years. In addition, the diseased leaves and sicknesses should be promptly removed after the growing period and after harvest, and buried deeply.
3, do a good job of ecological control. One is ventilation after sunset. When the weather forecasts a minimum nighttime temperature of 10Â°C, it shall be ventilated after sunset, and ventilation shall be carried out with broken ventilation. The ventilation area shall be about 1/10 of the greenhouse area and the ventilation time shall be 1 to 2 hours. When the minimum nighttime temperature is above 12Â°C, ventilation can be carried out day and night; the second is the ventilation after closing the shed and increasing the temperature after irrigation. Close doors and windows when watering or watering, let the temperature in the greenhouse increase to 32Â°C, maintain for 1 hour, then ventilate the windows and doors for 3 hours, if the temperature in the greenhouse is lower than 25Â°C, repeat the warming once and then ventilate; The number and amount of irrigation are to maintain the soil moisture content of about 70% as the standard. Avoid flooding on rainy days. It is best to clear water in the morning on sunny days to prevent excessive irrigation and excessive attendance.
4, pharmaceutical control. After the diseased plant was found, it was used in a timely manner. The main agent was streptomycin sulfate or 72% of streptomycin SG400 times, or 50% DT fungicide 500 times, or 77% to kill WP400 times per 667 square meters. Room spray liquid 60 ~ 75kg, spray once every 7d, continuous spray 2 ~ 3 times.
Second, cucumber downy mildew
Cucumber downy mildew is the most serious disease that damages the cucumber in the greenhouse in the northern greenhouse. In severe cases, the phenomenon of the collapse of the shed occurs from time to time, resulting in the production of cucumber in the spring crop. The disease mainly damages the leaves and mainly infects functional leaves, young leaves and old leaves suffer less. Seedling stage, adult stage can be disease. Control measures:
1. Improve the indoor ecological environment and pay attention to ventilation and dehumidification. Method with angular spot disease.
2, high temperature stuffy shed. Select the sunny morning, close the doors and windows of the shed, and raise the temperature inside the shed to 45Â°C for 2 hours to control the spread of the disease. Due to blade shading, the temperature is generally lower near the ground. Therefore, in order to ensure the effect of middle and lower layer of suffocation, when the cucumber plants are high, the temperature of the dung shed can be appropriately increased, but the maximum does not exceed 48Â°C. The water must be watered the day before the drapery. The thermometer should be hung at the same height as the cucumber growing point. After 2 hours of dribbling, proper ventilation allowed the temperature in the shed to gradually decrease and return to normal temperature.
3, chemical control. First, the spray method: When the central disease strain is found, the following agents can be used for prevention and treatment. 25% Amisite SC 25g per 667m2, or 72.2% Prec AS700-800x, 72% Kelu WP500-600x Spray, 40% Ethylphosphine WP300x, 75% Chlorothalon WP500 Double liquid, 64% anti-virus WP400 times spray; Second, smog method: In the early stages of disease, every 667 square meters of greenhouse with 45% chlorothalonil FU200 ~ 250g, put 4 to 5 places per room, closed when the smoke Shed, smoked 1 night, the next morning ventilation, smoked once every 7d.
Third, cucumber wilt
Cucumber wilt disease is also known as vine disease. In general, the incidence rate in the shed is 3 to 5%, and serious to more than 50%. Plant wilting is the main symptom of this disease, and it can be diseased at seedling stage. Control measures:
1. Use disease-free soil nursery.
2, rational cultivation and management. Deeply turning the soil, cultivating sorghum, serious disease sheds should take more than 5a rotation with non-melon crops. Apply rotted basal fertilizer and apply fertilizer in a timely manner to avoid flooding. In the onset of disease, it is necessary to control water, remove diseased plants, and disinfect the soil with carbendazim and other agents.
3, seed disinfection. Can be used 40% formalin 150 times soaking 1.5h after washing with water, and then germination sowing; or 70 Â°C constant temperature dry heat treatment 72 hours (seed moisture content below 10%), check the germination rate after sowing.
4, seedbed disinfection. 50% carbendazim WP8g was used to treat buckwheat noodles per square meter.
5, soil disinfection. That is, before the planting application of soil protection seedlings, with 50% carbendazim WP 4kg per 667 square meters, mixed with fine dry soil, mix and apply in the planting hole.
6, grafted disease prevention. Black seed pumpkin can be used as rootstock, cucumber scion, grafting for root.
7, pharmaceutical control. Can be used 2% agricultural anti-120AS100 times, or 50% carbendazim WP500 times, or 70% thiophanate-methyl WP800 times, at the beginning of the disease began to irrigate each irrigation 0.25kg liquid, 10 days after the irrigation 1 time.
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