Occurrence and Prevention of Spot Disease of Winter Jujube
The people with spotted winter jujube are commonly known as black spot and brown spot, which is an important disease that damages the fruit. The harm of spot disease has a great influence on the yield and quality of Zhanhua winter date. Since 2002, it has been serious in our county, which has brought huge losses to Zhanhua winter date. According to the observation and research in recent years, the severe epidemic of winter jujube speck disease can reduce the production of winter jujube by 20-40%, and some of the formed defective fruits account for more than 60%, which directly reduces the economic benefits of winter jujube. The incidence of spot disease of winter jujube is an infestation point of diseases such as anthrax and rotenone, and it has a non-negligible effect on the epidemic of rotten fruit disease in the later period. Therefore, prevention and treatment of winter jujube spot disease is one of the important measures to increase the output of winter jujube and improve the quality of winter jujube.
I. Pathogen of winter jujube
The disease was studied by experts from institutions such as Shandong Agricultural University, Laiyang Agricultural College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Binzhou Plant Protection Station, and was considered as a weak parasitic disease caused by a mixture of bacteria and fungi. Among them, bacteria include Pseudomonas sp, Xanthomonas sp, and Erwinia sp. Fungal species mainly include Alternaria sp Alternaria sp.
These pathogens are infested on fruit, which is consistent with the characteristics of weak parasites and their ability to cause disease is limited. That is to say, pathogens are mostly infected by the sores of fruit. This is one of the important features of this type of disease.
Second, the disease symptoms of winter jujube
Symptoms of young fruit: Scabs can infect from the size of fruit beans. The appearance of needle-like light-colored to white protuberances appeared on the fruit surface at the time of the initial infestation, and then rapidly increased. Subsequently, lesions of various shapes were formed. With the development of the fruit, the lesions become larger and cause rotten fruit and fruit drop. It can be divided into four types: red-brown, gray-brown, dry rot and open sores (see figure).
Open sore type: Infected from the size of the fruit bean. At the beginning of infestation, needle-like light-to-white protrusions appeared on the surface of the fruit, and then rapidly enlarged. After the rupture, the thickening of the bacteria appeared, and perforation was formed. The size of the cavity was different, deeper, and the shape was not very regular, and then it was air-dried. Scars, with the development of the fruit, scars become larger. Early prevention and treatment of winter jujube spot disease can get better control effect. The following are the types of pictures after prevention and treatment with different agents. Among them, the use of streptomycin, Dupont Wanxing, streptomycin plus Wanxing and other agents in the early stages of disease prevention and treatment.
If the disease is not controlled in time, the soreness formed by the diseased fruit is the infestation point of the fungal disease, and it is highly susceptible to other fungal diseases. The types of diseases that are frequently infected are rotten diseases such as anthrax ringworm disease (Figures) ) These diseases are the main factors that cause a lot of rot and fruit drop in the later period.
Third, the epidemic law:
The disease is a newly discovered disease in recent years. At present, some reasons for overwintering and onset are unknown. According to the time of onset and the characteristics of the infection, it is believed that the point of infection that causes the disease is related to sucking-type insects, such as blind deafness. It has been observed that the jujube germination to the young fruit period (late May to June) has a large amount of rain, and the soil moisture content is too high, which can easily lead to the epidemic of this disease.
Judging from the general trend, the strength of the tree-trend is the key to the severity of the disease. The weak tree vigor is worse than the tree vigor. On the contrary, it is light.
The open armor was too large and healed later in the mouth, resulting in weak tree vigor, especially the yellow leaves. The jujube tree with declining growth appeared heavy, and the young fruit had a more prominent onset period. In the young fruit period, the reproductive growth trend is obvious.
Through investigation and research in recent years, there is a certain relationship between top dressing and its onset in the spring, especially the large number of frequent use of urea and diammonium phosphate, leading to imbalance of soil nutrients, and at least one of the factors contributing to the increase of disease.
Fourth, prevention strategies and prevention measures:
According to the infestation characteristics and the law of occurrence of spotted disease of winter jujube, we must conscientiously implement the principle of plant protection with the principle of â€œprevention first, comprehensive prevention and control,â€ and comprehensively use agricultural, physical, and chemical prevention and control measures to start from healthy cultivation and strive to cultivate vigor. Improving jujube's resistance to diseases, combining effective drugs, and pests and diseases, especially paying attention to controlling the occurrence and harm of blind stink bugs, seizing powerful prevention and control opportunities, and actively carrying out prevention and control.
(a) Agricultural control measures:
1. Fertilize fertility, improve soil, strive to increase soil organic matter content, increase the use of organic fertilizers and potash fertilizers, and in particular eliminate and reduce the use of quick-acting chemical fertilizers. In the long-term view, create a favorable environment for the growth and development of winter jujube trees; It is the use of fertilizers before flowering to eliminate the use of pure and readily available nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers such as urea and phosphoric acid diamines, fully harmonizing the relationship between nutrition and reproductive growth, and striving to create conditions that are not conducive to the occurrence of diseases.
2. Pay attention to timely watering: The use of pre-harvest water can not only meet the fruit set requirements of winter jujube, but also reduce the degree of infection in flowering stages. The flowering period and young fruit period are the peak incidence of winter speckled scab and bacterial scab. In the period, special attention should be paid to avoiding water use during the flowering and fruit-setting period, reducing soil moisture at the peak of onset, and striving to create environmental conditions that are not conducive to disease occurrence.
(b) Chemical control measures:
1. Do a good job in spring buds off the ground, do a good job of prevention and control of overwintering pests and diseases, and reduce the number of insects:
2. Before the bud (from the end of March to the beginning of April), apply 3-5 degrees lime sulfur to the tree once.
3ã€In late April, Dupont Wanling 2000 times liquid plus 40% Fuxing 80000 times liquid or Tepuzi 2000 times spray to the environment of Soda, to prevent and control pests and overwintering diseases in early spring.
4. The prevention and treatment of disease at the time of disease should be based on the occurrence of the disease, the first time the drug should take advantage of the opportunity to prevent and control before flowering. The subsequent medication should be administered once every 10 days according to the specific conditions in the field.
Drugs for prevention and cure: Streptomycin for agricultural use, Kekekang, etc. for the prevention and treatment of bacterial diseases plus 20.67% of Wanxing 2500-3000 times or 40% of Fuxing 8000-10000 times of liquid with 68.75% of Yibao 1500 times of liquid. Azide 1500-2000 times spray control, 10-15 days control once. It should be noted that drugs with different mechanisms of action are used interchangeably to avoid resistance.
Zhanhua County Plant Protection Station (Senior agronomist) Li Fuyou
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