An easy-to-fuse stage of the anal fistula The common hens are prone to scrofula during the first stage of production, from 21 weeks to 34 weeks. Physiologically speaking, at this stage, the secretion of estrogen and progesterone in chickens is very strong, and ovulation increases continuously. Large eggs and double yellow eggs are prone to appear. At this time, if the nutrition of the feed is not balanced, especially when the crude protein content is high and the energy is low, the phenomenon of large eggs and double yellow eggs is more likely to occur. Crude protein was 17.6%, energy was 11.01 MJ/kg, daily anal mortality was 0.1%, double yellow egg, large egg ratio was 4.5%, egg production rate was 90%. Large eggs and double yellow eggs, resulting in the first hens lay eggs, the uterus prolapse, so when the birds are fat, but also easy to cause anal tear, combined with the primordial hens affected by hormones, temperament sensitive, aggressive, Fortunately, it is easy to have a scrofula.
Second genetic factors
In the same feeding environment and feed nutrition levels, different varieties, some licking, some not. In the case of the feed energy and crude protein mentioned above, the Roman ancestral broiler had an anal fistula and the Roman broiler did not.
Some breeds have focused on selecting more traits for laying eggs in genetic breeding. There are more eggs, more estrogen secretion, and more prone to licking. For example, in 1997, the same breed of ancestral chickens experienced severe squealing in different areas. In 1998, the introduction of a batch of the same breed of ancestral chicken did not result in a serious squeal situation. However, in 1999, the next generation of the ancestral chickens of the previous year, the parental breeder chicken, also suffered from severe anal fistula. Whether or not there are genetic factors in the intergenerational generation, there is no definite basis.
Sansuiâ€™s hens are open to prone to licking
The problem of maturity of lighting control regulation and delayed production time is a problem that is difficult to solve in the semi-open chicken house. From the winter to the summer, this kind of henhouse will generally produce early, if not shading, with the extension of the light. As early as production is started, due to the immunity of breeding chickens in the brooding and breeding stage, the number of stress reactions also increases, often resulting in early body weight failing to reach the standard, and late feeding again, in pursuit of the body weight to reach the standard at sexual maturity. But the skeleton is small, and there are many fats near the anus, which can easily cause dystocia, which in turn causes the other chicken to lose its anus. It can be seen that poor light control, resulting in premature sexual maturation is an important factor in the induction of scrofula. No matter whether the body weight is up to standard or not, it is easy to cause anal fistula, and there is not much relationship with the morning and evening of peak egg production.
In 1997, two ancestral chicken farms, two breeds of new hens from March to April opened one after another, opening date of production 115 ~ 120d. The egg production rate is 50% at the age of 150 days, and the egg production rate is 85% at the age of 160 days. At the same time see more double yellow eggs, these two fields are semi-open chicken house, there is no shading facilities, in the broiler chicken stage is catching up with daylight hours longer, beyond the 8h light of the bred phase. One field changed the peak early, and the weight was too high. In another field, the weight was too light for the peak material to be late, and the egg production rate was changed more than 80%.
Illumination is one of the indispensable environmental conditions for living organisms. Long-term lighting can promote sexual maturity for young livestock and poultry. If people take some shading measures, change the intensity of light, time and color, can effectively control the growth and development of chickens, regulate sexual maturity, prevent and reduce the occurrence of fistula fistula. The light intensity is very important. After observing the closed chicken house and the semi-open chicken house, it was found that the closed chicken house had the same stepped rearing, the same density, and the artificial light. Little, almost none. According to relevant reports, the light intensity during the laying period is 32 to 65 lx, and the house is quite large during intensive breeding. The light that the light bulb should emit is often absorbed by ceilings, walls, equipment, and appliances. In addition, there are a lot of dust, light bulbs, old bulbs, and long distances in the house, and the actual light reaching the ground is only about half. In the semi-open house, the minimum intensity of daylight is 10.8lx, reaching a maximum of 100 lux. In a chicken farm, cleaning was performed. The glass windows that had not been wiped in the semi-open shed for several years were wiped clean, and branches that were not pruned for a few years were cut off. As a result, a scrofula occurred.
As for the color of light, tests have shown that red can delay sexual maturation, make the flock quiet, reduce lice, and the egg production also slightly increases, but the fertility rate is low. This can be compensated with skilled artificial insemination techniques. Huang Guang also can postpone sexual maturity and increase egg weight, but feed returns are reduced and egg production is reduced. Both green and blue light have the effect of accelerating sexual maturity, but blue light also has the advantage of increasing the weight gain rate, increasing the cocking power of cockerels, and reducing the licking rate. Therefore, for open and semi-open chicken houses, the intensity and color of light should be adjusted during the rearing stage, early to middle stage, and late stage to prevent the occurrence of anal fistula.
Five feed factors induced scrofula factors
The excess or lack of nutrients in the feed, and the imbalance of various nutrient ratios can cause the fistula to occur. A chicken farm to add salt to the chicken with severe fistula, plus calcium hydrogen phosphate, add methionine have no effect, when adding 1% of imported fish meal, plus 5% of bran, refueling, plus sedative test has different degrees of effect . This shows that the general diet calcium, phosphorus, salt will not lack and lose balance. In theory and practice, animal protein diets are generally absent, feeds with low crude fiber content, and high protein feeds are susceptible to anaesthesia.
Dr. Saiah, Jordan (1998) listed a table of poultry cockroaches fed with different crude fiber diets. See Table 2. The anal fistula is also closely related to the crude fiber content. The layered hens generally lack crude fiber, and only 2% to 3%. The standard crude fiber content of the breeder should be 4% to 5%. Therefore, putting some gravel in the bucket, hanging green leaves in the air, and adding 5% bran in the feed have a certain effect on preventing and controlling the scrofula. Because of the lack of crude fiber, birds are less likely to have a feeling of fullness.
Crude protein in feed is high, and low energy can easily induce licking. At this time, refueling increases energy and has a certain effect. When formulating feeds for breeder chickens, it is important to balance the amino acids. At the same time, a reasonable mix of raw materials and a balanced amino acid diet can reduce crude protein by at least 1%, and more often by 2% to 4%. rate. The preparation of amino acid balanced feeds and the use of amino acids in formulating feeds can reduce the crude protein content, which was done several years ago. The balanced feed with low crude protein can also reduce the generation of harmful gases such as ammonia gas and sulfur dioxide, improve the air environment, and also prevent the occurrence of earthworms.
Six ankle fistula prevention measures
Anal fistula is an ancient and challenging problem. At present, there are no particularly effective drugs that can be cured. Only strengthening feeding and management, providing full-priced feed, and doing a good job in environmental sanitation.
Emphasize the work of the cultivation phase and unify the maturity and sexual maturity.
Timely and appropriate breaks.
Control the light intensity and air freshness of the hen house.
Pay attention to the balance of feed, feed energy can not be low at this time, protein can not be high, crude fiber can not be less.
Prevent infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, parasitic diseases, reduce itching stimulation of cloacas, and increase satiety.
Gypsum powder prevents warts caused by insufficient sulfur amino acids.
The addition of sedatives at the time of opening the product can relieve the caries, but whether there are side effects still needs further study.
Only chickens can be treated with gentian violet and kept alone. You can also use the waste machine oil applied to bedding. With unpleasant odors and ugly colors, chickens lose their interest in mourning.
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