Food sterilization technology (2)

5. Radiation sterilization Sterilization is the use of gamma-ray, gamma-ray or electronic high-speed radiation to irradiate food, causing organisms in food to produce physical or chemical reactions, inhibiting or destroying their metabolism, growth and development, and even causing cell death to be destroyed. Bacteria disinfection, to extend the time of food storage sales purposes. Radiation sterilization produces almost no heat, maintains the sensory and quality characteristics of the food, and is suitable for sterilizing frozen foods. Compared with the traditional heating method, it is easier to control accurately and consumes less energy. The World Health Organization has adopted radiation as a safe and effective food processing method and has formulated corresponding standards. Radiation sterilization has been approved by the government and approved for use in many countries. The radiation method is used to sterilize chicken, prawns and frog legs in western European countries; radiation is also widely used in disinfection of various spices. The United States has been used in strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, chicken, etc., and is generally accepted by the public. In China, the effectiveness of radiation preservation technology for rice, wheat, corn, vegetables, fruits, and fish has shown broad prospects. However, in general, the radiation method has a relatively late start in China's food industry. The understanding of the role and advantages is not yet deep, and investment and research in this area should be increased to make it catch up with the international advanced level. 6. Ozone sterilization technology Ozone is an allotrope of oxygen, has a strong oxidizing ability, the oxygen reduction potential in water is 2.07V, second only to the fluorine potential 2.87V, ranking second, its oxidation capacity is higher than Chlorine (1.36 V), chlorine dioxide (1.5 V). Because ozone has strong oxidizing properties, it has a strong killing effect on bacteria, molds, and viruses, and also has broad prospects in deodorization and decolorization of foods. The bactericidal mechanism is generally considered to be: Ozone can easily chemically react with the lipoproteins in the cell walls of the bacteria or the phospholipids and proteins in the cell membranes, thereby damaging the cell walls and cells of the bacteria (so-called bacteriolysis) and the permeability of the cell membranes. The increase in the outflow of intracellular substances causes them to lose their activity. Ozone destroys or decomposes cell walls, rapidly diffuses into cells, and oxidizes enzymes or DNA and RNA in cells, thereby killing pathogens. Therefore, when foods are replaced with gas replacement packaging, vacuum packaging, deoxygenation packaging, and human powder and alcohol packaging, filling ozone to kill yeast can solve the problem of deterioration of these packaged foods. In the production of mineral water, soft drinks, fruit juices, etc., ozone has also achieved satisfactory results in the disinfection of containers, pipelines, equipment, and workshop environment. 7. Far-infrared radiation sterilization technology Compared with far infrared radiation and conduction heating, the survival rate of the bacteria decreased significantly above the lethal temperature. Below 40°C (below the lethal temperature), the higher the heat energy, the lower the survival rate of the bacteria. Yang Ruijin reported that the bacteria, yeast, and mold suspensions were loaded into plastic bags for far-infrared sterilization, and their control powers were 6 KW, 8 KW, 10 KW, and 12 KW, respectively. The results showed that: irradiation 10Min can kill all heat-resistant bacteria. (The number of heat-resistant bacteria can be reduced by 1O5-108 or more; the power of more than 8KW is sufficient for the yeast to meet the need for inhibition; for mold, irradiation of 10Min or more of irradiation power can completely kill live bacteria). The above-mentioned several technologies have also appeared in the world in pulsed magnetic field sterilization, resistance heating sterilization, ionizing radiation, and nanofiltration membrane technology applied in the production of purified water, which have shown potential research and application value in different fields of the food industry. . Most of the products in China's food industry use traditional heat sterilization. Due to the backwardness of production technology, some products, especially some health care products, are not of high quality and grade. Therefore, we must speed up the renewal of China's food production technology. Improve product quality and competitiveness in the international market.

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