In recent years, livestock, poultry and aquaculture industries in the world have developed rapidly. The requirements for animal proteins have also become faster and faster. At present, many countries have embarked on breeding clams and conducted research on opening up new sources of protein feeds. Some countries have done a lot of work in this area and the progress has been relatively fast. The use of animal manure, bedding, etc., to feed sturgeon from solid wastes, and then feed sturgeon to livestock and poultry, the implementation of this scientific ecological balance system can not only reduce the pollution of these wastes to the environment, but also produce high-efficiency. Organic fertilizer can also provide high quality animal protein feed for livestock and poultry husbandry. At the same time, wolfberry itself is also a traditional Chinese medicine with extremely high medicinal value. It can also be used to treat a variety of human and animal diseases. Livestock production plays an important role in the production system. This article reviews the biological characteristics, nutrient composition and its application in animal husbandry.
1 Biological characteristics of earthworms
The warmth, the wetness, the photophobia, the nocturnal emission, and the complexities of food are as follows.
1.1 èš¯èš“ is a temperature-changing animal, the suitable temperature is 6 ~ 30 Â°C, lower than 5 Â°C into the dormant state, and atrophy, to -5 Â°C will freeze to death. Its highest lethal temperature is slightly lower than other invertebrates. The suitable temperature for the propagation of earthworms is 15 to 30Â°C. The higher the temperature in this temperature range, the shorter the hatching time, but the hatching rate will decrease.
1.2 The suitable humidity is 50% to 80% and the range is very wide. However, because of the absorption of oxygen dissolved in water through the skin, it is very important to sprinkling water to maintain a moist environment. The fresher and more abundant the absorbed air, the faster metabolism and growth, the more spawning.èš¯èš“ Do not survive in conditions of high carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, methane, chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and in dry, suffocating environments.
1.3 Fear of light, night out. The photoreceptor cells with a similar crystal structure on the body surface and the front of the mouth of the earthworm are very sensitive to light, and the suitable light intensity is 32-65 lux. Blu-ray and ultraviolet rays are particularly damaging to blemishes, and red light stimulates them to be small.
1.4 Apes prefer to inhabit in slightly acidic to neutral environments. The suitable pH for Japanese, Daping No. 2 and Aceria philippinarum is 5.5 to 7.8. Generally, a thoroughly fermented food can satisfy this condition.
1.5 A wide range of foods are available. Almost anything can be eaten except metal, glass, rubber, and plastic. Even sewage, silt, and household waste are good foods.
1.6 The reproduction rate for the following year is 3,000 to 40000 times. The annual weight of the adult larvae is 100 to 500 times that of the species, 1 to 2 square meters of the annual output of the culturing materials is 20 to 50 kg. Every 667 square meters of cultured area produces èš¯èš“2 to 3 tons per year at the same time, the output of manure is about 20 tons.
2 Nutritional components of alfalfa
èš¯èš“ is rich in protein, protein content in dry matter can be as high as about 70%, the general analysis results can also be obtained 41.62% ~ 66% of crude protein. The most important factor affecting the nutritional value and quality of protein depends mainly on the content and ratio of essential amino acids. According to reports, the protein in the earthworm contains a lot of amino acids, which are necessary for the growth and development of livestock, poultry and fish. The amino acids of heterolabams and William Ringworm are extremely high in amino acids and their composition is almost uniform. They contain almost 20 kinds of amino acids that are commonly found in proteins. Among them, 10 essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids and other aquatic products required for fish are fully available. The various essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids required for economic animals and aquatic animals are only different due to the type and origin of the earthworms. The highest amino acid content of leucine is leucine, followed by arginine and lysine. The content of arginine in pupa protein is 2 times that of peanut protein and 3 times that of fish protein. The content of tryptophan is 4 times that of animal blood meal protein and 7 times that of bovine liver. Not only does the body of the cockroach contain a lot of protein, but it also contains a certain amount of protein in its fecal pellet. The Japanese Food Analysis Center once analyzed the cockroach feces, and when the water content is only about 11%, the cockroach excrement Containing about 3.6% of total nitrogen, the crude protein is 22.5% so that both cockroaches and earthworms can be eaten by animals, poultry, and fish. At the same time, the fat content of wolfberry is also high. Among them, unsaturated fatty acids contain high content of saturated fatty acids and the highest linoleic acid content. In addition, wolfberry is also rich in vitamins and trace elements.
3 Application Development
At present, there are mainly the following types of animal husbandry processed products.
3.1 Fresh oysters
Fresh squid is a kind of juicy high-protein animal feed, which is widely used for live food of chickens, ducks, pigs, turtles, shrimps, crabs and other animals. Feeding crabs with fresh oysters can increase production by 20%, feeding shrimps by 50%, and survival rate by 30%. Livestock, poultry, and fish both prefer to eat mixed with fresh alfalfa. The amount of blending depends on the type of livestock, poultry, and fish, and the size of the individual, and is preferably about 5% of the total weight of the feed, but sometimes it can be as much as 40% to 50%. Feeding young animals, poultry and fish with this mixed feed is particularly effective. After eating, they grow fast, are bright and clean, develop well, do not get sick or get sick, and they also reduce death.
Fresh squid is dried or dried and then crushed. The protein content of loquat powder is as high as 70%, which is comparable to that of imported fishmeal. The content of arginine is 2 to 3 times higher than that of fish meal, and the content of tryptophan is 7 times that of bovine liver. It also contains more carotene and various vitamins. Trace elements. Generally every 6kg of fresh wolfberry can be processed into 1kg of lotus root starch.
There are more than 10 proteolytic enzymes and plasmin in the digestive tract. Using these enzyme bait proteins, they become soluble small-molecule active peptides and amino acids, which can be completely absorbed by other animals as an additive to exert their anti-promoting and long-acting effects.
The development value of the dung product is large, and the processing of the dung manure into green organic fertilizer is a high-level fertilizer for gardening and raising flowers and grass. The manure excrement is black and fine granular and is a high quality organic fertilizer. According to the test results of the Shishang Test Center of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, manure contains 2.15% of ammonia, 1.76% of phosphorus, 0.27% of potassium, and 32.4% of organic matter, and contains 23 kinds of amino acids. At the same time, manure is the best food additive for aquatic products, livestock and poultry, and chicken powder is better than fish meal.
4 Application of earthworms in animal husbandry
4.1 instead of fish meal
Wolfberry is an excellent animal protein feed. It was determined that the prion protein content was 60.4%, and the amino acid content was not much different from that of imported fishmeal, which was higher than that of domestic fishmeal and could replace fishmeal as a protein feed for farmed animals. Fu-Qing Yu (2006) showed that the daily weight gain of the finishing pigs fed with ground meal instead of fish meal increased by 13.1% and the feed-to-weight ratio decreased by 0.9:1.
4.2 Promote growth
For feeding animals can be used as animal attractants to promote animal growth. Ma Xueyun (2003) added 2% tantalum powder to the experimental group. The results showed that the average daily weight gain of the experimental group increased by 18% and the ratio of meat to meat decreased by 12.3%. Liu Bo et al (2006) compared to the control group, the weight gain rate of feeding 5% peony heterotrophic silver cocoon was significantly higher than the control group by 29.75% (p<0.05), and the bait coefficient was significantly decreased by 23.77% (p<0.05). Reduced mortality.
Cockroaches can reduce the production of odor compounds in animal faeces and improve the environment of livestock houses. Zeng et al. (2004) showed that earthworm powder can reduce feces pH, dry matter, and feces in the feces (p<0.05), but at the same time it can increase the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, and 3-methylanthraquinone (p< 0.05); Wang Songping (2006) showed that the main components of the odor in the house are ammonia gas and hydrogen sulfide gas. The effect of removing ammonia and H2S from sawdust as padding is obvious. The decline did not provide any abnormal performance to the chicken house while providing good environmental conditions.
The value of breeding, utilization, and exploitation of earthworms is extremely significant, and the use of cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, chicken manure, rotten fruit, skin nuclei, leaves, foods, agricultural and sideline products, etc. Animals do not compete with other animals for feed. Breeding has a short cycle, a high rate of reproduction, a wide range of materials, and a particularly low price. After raising a cockroach, it is greatly appreciated and the technology is not complicated. Alas, the economic value is high. Because of its rich protein content, breeding quail is an effective way to solve the shortage of animal protein feed. Numerous studies have shown that wolfberry (powder) has a high nutritional value and can be used as a feed instead of fishmeal.èš¯èš“ Feed protein as a high-quality protein feed will certainly receive attention.
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