1, apple needs fertilizer characteristics:
Apple needs thirteen mineral nutrients. Among them, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are three kinds of nutrients necessary for the growth and development of fruit trees. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are the middle elements of apple development. Boron, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and chlorine are closely related to growth and development. Trace elements. Too much or too little of these thirteen elements will affect the normal growth and development of apples. They have an irreplaceable role. Often lack of production and need to supplement, in addition to a large number of elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the amount of calcium and magnesium elements also need to be added, especially calcium, after Apple bagging is the focus of the need to add elements. Trace elements are mainly concerned with the addition of boron, zinc, and iron. Because they are trace elements, they are not enough and are too bad. Therefore, it is necessary to grasp the amount of supplements and supplements.
The amount of main nutrient elements that need to be supplemented in the apple tree is different throughout the annual growth process, so fertilization must be seized in a critical period of scientific application. The demand for nitrogen is greatest in the early growth period. Shoot growth, Citi and young fruit A large amount of nitrogen is needed for growth. However, the nitrogen needed during this period is mainly derived from the storage nutrients of the tree. Therefore, it is very important to increase the nitrogen storage nutrients. After entering the end of June, the nitrogen requirement is reduced. If there is excessive nitrogen in July and August, It will inevitably cause a long autumnal growth, affecting flower bud differentiation and fruit enlargement. Before harvesting from dormancy, it is the peak of re-growth of the root system, which is also the storage period of nitrogen nutrition, and the demand for nitrogen fertilizer also rebounds. The absorption of phosphorus element shows a rapid increase in the initial stage of growth, and the flowering period reaches the peak of absorption. It has remained at a high level until after the late growth period. The tree's demand for potassium is expressed as low, medium, high and low, ie, the demand for flowering is small, and it gradually increases in the later period. The peak of fruit expansion reaches a peak in August and gradually declines in the later period. The absorption of calcium reached its peak in the apple young fruit period, accounting for 70% of the whole year. Therefore, the supplement of sufficient calcium in the young fruit period is very important for fruit growth and development. The apple's demand for magnesium gradually increased with the growth of the leaves and maintained at a relatively high level. Boron is the most demanded at flowering stage, followed by young fruit stage and fruit enlargement period. Therefore, replenishing sheds at flowering stage is the key period, which can increase the fruit setting rate and increase the quality fruit rate. Zinc needs the greatest amount of germination and must be supplemented before germination.
2. At present, there are outstanding problems in apple orchards due to improper fertilization and management measures.
1 The excessive application of physiological acidic fertilizers for successive years caused severe acidification of the soil, which led to a decrease in water-soluble calcium in the soil, decreased availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, boron and other nutrients, and decreased the average utilization rate of chemical fertilizers. Soil acidification was also Can produce more manganese ions, and even cause "manganese poisoning."
2 Overdose of inferior chemical fertilizers for many years can cause too much inorganic salt in the soil, which can increase the osmotic pressure of the soil solution, affect the absorption of nutrients and water by roots, cause soil salinization and reddening, and cause the fruit tree not to grow normally.
3 Unbalanced nutrient elements in soil due to improper fertilization If nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are used excessively, organic fertilizers and other fertilizers often cause shortages of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and boron.
4 The effect of girdling is to keep the organic nutrients produced by the leaves in the tree part of the tree for a certain period of time without sending it to the roots, thereby controlling the tree vigor and increasing the amount of flowers. But the consequence is that a large number of absorption roots die due to hunger. Directly affecting the absorption of nutrients and water in the root system is also one of the important causes of the deficiency of the disease.
3, how to balance fertilizer
Balanced fertilization is based on the characteristics of tree body fertilizer, soil nutrient content and target production requirements, the organic fertilizer, NPK, and trace elements in accordance with the scientific proportion and quantity of the best choice of fertilization, supplement to the crop. One meets the best demand for various nutrient elements in crops.
At present, we are still unable to perform accurate tests on large areas of soil and tree nutrients, and based on laboratory results, the best combination of various elements will be added to the crop in a timely manner. We can only continue to summarize it based on many years of production practices. The fertilization experience of high-yield and high-quality orchards constantly improves and improves the fertilization plan, and strives to use various methods to balance the nutrient elements required by the tree in order to meet the demand for high-yield and high-quality fruit for various nutrient elements.
To be specific, four combinations are needed, namely the combination of basal fertilizer and topdressing fertilizer, the combination of NPK and trace elements, and the combination of soil fertilization and foliar fertilizer.
Basal fertilizer refers to fertilizing the soil after harvesting or before germination, and generally applies about 75% of the total amount of fertilizer for the whole year. There is also a "one-shot" method that has also achieved very good results. "As soon as one bombards," as its name implies, it applies the whole year's fertilizing amount to the soil at one time, and no longer fertilizes it during the whole growing season. The "one bombardment" fertilization method should have certain conditions: First, the soil must have strong water retention and fertility; Second, the amount of fertilizer should be sufficient; Third, it is best not to engage in girdling.
Basal fertilizer is the focus of fertilization throughout the year must be to achieve a reasonable formula. That is, organic fertilizer, high-quality compound fertilizer and trace elements in a reasonable match, so that fruit tree nutrition balance. Secondly, the quantity should be sufficient to make the fruit trees full, and they should not be full and full. The amount of fertilizer should be 10%-15% of the mu yield. In addition, the fertilization method should be scientific. In the young age, the ring groove is dug, the groove width is 30 cm, and the depth is 30 cm. As a result, the big tree digs the radial grooves and digs out 6-8 radial grooves at the radius of the canopy. Shallow outside depth, narrow inside and outside width, depth 20-40 cm, fertilizer and soil should be fully stirred evenly, after harvesting, the effect is better than early spring.
Top dressing is mainly applied in July and August. The high-potassium compound fertilizer can be digged in early July, and high quality potassium fertilizer can also be applied in early July and early August respectively.
The organic fertilizer should be applied in one time when applying the basal fertilizer. The farm organic fertilizer must be fully cooked and the organic fertilizer should account for 40%-50% of the total fertilizer input.
Foliar fertilizer has unique advantages that are both convenient and efficient. Such as pre-germination zinc supplement flowering before filling the bagging before calcium growth during the early period of nitrogen fruit expansion during potassium supplementation to prevent physiological diseases to improve fruit setting, promote flowering, strengthen photosynthesis, improve fruit quality have played a very good effect.
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