Yongji apricot tree has a long history and a wide variety of varieties. It is the largest apricot tree base in southern Shanxi and North China. It is famous for its early maturity, excellent price and good quality. Its products are exported to large and medium-sized cities in Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, and our province. Fruit products have always shown a good trend of supply exceeding demand. After joining the WTO, facing the challenges and opportunities of the international market, the production of pollution-free and pollution-free green fruits has become the current trend of fruit production. The production of green fruits must strictly follow the green standards of the Ministry of Agriculture. In the production process, it can't be polluted by the environment and other factors to ensure the safety of the fruit. Therefore, the production of green fruits is imperative. This article puts forward production technical requirements for the production of special early apricot green fruits. First, the green fruit special early ripe apricot on the ecological environment requirements Park site selection: Green fruit production base should have a good ecological environment. Therefore, in the selection of the site, we should choose fresh air, pure water, unpolluted soil environment, try to stay away from industrial areas and traffic arteries, or choose In the upwind outlets of cities, industrial areas, and traffic arteries, surface water and groundwater quality are also required to be pollution-free, soil element content is appropriate, soil structure is good, and the soil should have high fertility. 2. Environmental quality standards: Environmental pollution mainly refers to the source of atmospheric, water quality, soil and other conditions of pollution. The air quality standards should adopt the first-level standards listed in the national air quality standard GB3095--B2, especially for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and total suspended particulates, and the water quality should meet GB--5084--92 farmland irrigation. The water quality standards shall be less than one ten-millionth of the heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, chloride, and fluoride. The heavy metals and harmful salts in the soil shall be based on the soil type and the depth of the soil. Limited standards. 3. Control the pollution of production links: At present, China classifies green foods into AA grades and A grades. The former must not use any chemically synthesized pesticides and fertilizers in the production process, while the latter allows limited use of prescribed chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Currently, AA is developed. Level is more difficult, A-level is more suitable for national conditions. 3.1 Comprehensive prevention and treatment of special premature apricots: The occurrence of pests and diseases in the production of apricot trees is unavoidable. In order not to cause pollution to the environment and fruits and maintain the balance of the agricultural ecosystem, it is necessary to minimize the use of chemical pesticides, allowing the use of plant pesticides and biological pesticides, microbial pesticides, the use of highly toxic, highly toxic, high residue or carcinogenic, teratogenic And mutagenic pesticides. If production is necessary, the production base is allowed to use a limited amount of organic synthetic chemical pesticides, but it must be strictly followed in accordance with pesticide use procedures and methods of use. 3.2 Reasonable fertilization: The main fertilizers used in the production of green fruits are farmyard fertilizers, and the ones are non-chemically synthesized commercial fertilizers. The use of fertilizers in production is not correct. The difference in the time of application and the method of fertilization will inevitably lead to Soil, air and water pollution, and the large use of nitrate nitrogen fertilizer, can increase the nitrate content in the soil and lead to an increase in the nitrate content in the fruit, which has an adverse effect on the fruit quality and reduces the quality of the fruit. To this end, it is strongly recommended that more organic manure be used, formula fertilization should be used, micronutrient fertilizers must be added, and nitrogen fertilizers must not be used in excess. For fertilizers that are allowed to be used in limited quantities, such as urea, potassium sulfate, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, special fertilizers should be Organic fertilizers and microbial fertilizers are used in combination, and the ratio of organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen is 1:1. When used as top dressing, it should be stopped 30 days before fruit picking. Second, the production of green fruit special early apricot technology 1. Select high-quality strong seedlings, seedlings should try to use the root system integrity, thick branches, shiny skin, buds full and full, height 100cm, 1.2cm thickness, no quarantine pests as cultivation objects. 2. The special early-ripening apricot varieties with anti-frozen and high-yield production are planted with gold sun, red feng, new century and Qinwang apricot. 3. Rational allocation of pollination tree, new varieties of antifreeze and high yield have a certain ability of self-pollination, but the effect of cross-pollination is better, and the proportion of pollination trees is 4- to 5:1. 4. Density and tree shape, the planting density of special early-ripening apricots is 3m for every 667m2 (4-50m mu for 44--55 plants, 2m for dense planting plants (3--4m, per 667m2 planting) 83--111. The tree shape is selected from the free-spindle shape â€œVâ€ shape. 5. Planting, digging large pits, planting, pits generally 60cm deep, 80cm wide, apply base fertilizer before planting, 667 square meters of decomposed organic fertilizer 3000--5000kg, about 50kg of ternary compound fertilizer, after fertilizer and topsoil mix, when backfilling and planting, contact with the root system of fertilizer and seedlings is prohibited. Before planting, the water is allowed to swell, and after planting, it is set to dry. 70--80cm, "V"-shaped setting height of 50cm, after the start of the growth of apricot trees, pay attention to smearing. 6. Pruning, sapling mainly summer pruning, take control of the heart long, and promote branching. Skeleton, rapid expansion of the crown, the extension of the backbone of the branch is generally carried out a year topping, in the new shoot to the 40--50cm, other prosperous shoots when about 30cm topping, in September on the small branch of the backbone, Stand erect branches and pull branches to open the angle, adjust the direction of extension. Branch cut, the extension of the backbone branches Long branch short cut 40--50cm, light-cut long-medium fruiting branches, thinning off dense branches, standing upright branches and competing branches. The pruning of the result tree, summer eradication of large branch back, vigorous sawing in the saw, Wang shoots the missing shoots and shoots, opens up the angle through other measures, and controls the growth and utilization of the shoots. In winter pruning, it is necessary to combine cutting, releasing, sparse and shrinking, and pay attention to the preparation of branches and perennial branches. , To eliminate excessively dense and excessive branches, open the light path, promote the growth of the internal litchi, cut the middle and long fruit branches, and retract the debilitated, long-standing branches, and control the resulting parts to move upwards and outwards.Maintain the crown structure and perennial branches The results of the ability to maintain the tree potential middle, regulate growth and the relationship between the results.7 flower and fruit management, early apricot growth period is short, fruit set rate is high, should be timely fruit thinning to increase fruit, increase uniformity, under normal circumstances, The gap between fruits is 5-8cm.8.Pest and pest prevention, the main diseases and pests of apricot tree are aphids, spider mites, scale insects, scab, punch disease, commonly used drugs are 10% imidacloprid, chrysanthemum pesticides, 65% of the On behalf of zinc, polyoxin, agricultural resistance 120 and so on.
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